Organic Chem Self-Mug Tutorials

All right I admit.

Sometimes, I am simply too tired to attend lectures, especially when I have had a very busy day at work or I had insufficient sleep the previous night. (FYI – I’m doing part time studies and having a full time day job). Needless to say, I had to resort to other methods of studying for my quizzes, tests and what-nots.

Currently, the module which I am enrolled in has a very strong footing in Organic Chemistry. After sieving through what seems like a million videos on youtube, I finally came across these two channels which are my favourites –

 

1. Khan Academy.

Link – http://www.youtube.com/user/readysetorgo?feature=g-high-crv

Description – Our mission is to provide a world-class education for anyone, anywhere. This channel includes Khan Academy videos on Organic Chemistry presented by Jay. All Khan Academy content is available for free at http://www.khanacademy.org.

Here’s one of their videos on Chirality Centers and Stereoisomes as a sneak preview:

 

2. Freelance Teacher

Link – http://www.youtube.com/user/freelanceteach

Description – These videos are offered on a “pay what you like” basis. You can pay for the use of the videos at my website:

http://www.freelance-teacher.com/videos.htm

 At my website you can find links to playlists for all the video series, with series on similar topics arranged in suggested viewing order, as well as printable documents containing the “handouts” or problems discussed in the videos. I am not an expert on the topics covered in these videos. The videos may contain errors; viewer beware.

Sneak Preview on Aldehydes, Ketones and Enolates because I happened to be studying that

 

Both of these are useful if you’re enrolled into an institution like I am. However, if you’re not officially in an educational institution and you’d like to do some serious self-studying, then…the second one’s more for you. It actually has its own site and you can download contents from there.

For those already enrolled in a school, you SHOULD have your own notes and SHOULD be simply adding on to your own (like me) unless you hate your notes or deem them not useful.

Anyway, I hope these two channels prove useful to all my friends studying Organic Chemistry at a Degree level out there ~

Cheers XD

Answer to Einstein’s Riddle

For those of you who have figured out – YAY!! Congratulations!

For those of you who haven’t, it’s okay…this post will be giving you the answer.

NOTE: SPOILERS AHEAD!

IF YOU WANNA SOLVE IT ON YOUR OWN DON”T LOOK!

And here goes…

Answer: Germany.

This is how I solved it:

> I drew out five houses:

House 1                House 2                House 3                House 4                House 5

> Now, we know that the Norweigen lives in the first house right? So I wrote ‘Norweigen’ under House 1.

House 1                House 2                House 3                House 4                House 5

Norweigen

> 2nd last point: Norweigen lives next to the blue house. So that makes the second house blue, since it’s already at the end and there’s no houses built before it. I changed the name of the house to ‘Blue’ instead for easier reference.

House 1                Blue                House 3                House 4                House 5

Norweigen

> Next point I took note of is: ‘The man living in the centre house drinks milk. So, okay. Milk goes in the centre.

House 1                Blue                House 3                House 4                House 5

Norweigen                                   Milk

> *looks through the points* ah! Here an important one: ‘The Green house is on the left of the white house’ and ‘the green homeowner drinks coffee’. If you look at the previous ‘graph’, there can only be one position for the green house. Yes. The 4th house.

House 1           Blue           House 3           Green           House 5

Norweigen                         Milk                   Coffee

> Moreover, we knows that the owner drinks coffee and that the house on its right is white. That makes the 5th house white:

House 1           Blue           House 3           Green           White

Norweigen                         Milk                  Coffee

> As of now, there are only two houses with unknown colors – the first and third. We know that the Brit lives in a red house. Since the first house is already occupied by the Norweigen, we can conclude that the Brit lives in House 3, which is therefore a red house.

House 1           Blue           Red           Green           White

Norweigen                         Milk                        Coffee

Brit

> And since there are only 5 colors and 5 houses, our first house is Yellow.

Yellow           Blue           Red           Green           White

Norweigen                       Milk          Coffee

Brit

> And yes! There is information on the yellow house owner: ‘The owner of the yellow house smokes Dunhill

Yellow              Blue           Red           Green           White

Norweigen                          Milk          Coffee

Dunhill                                  Brit

> ‘The man who keeps the horse lives next to the man who smokes Dunhill.’ Since the person who smokes Dunhill is living at the edge of ‘Town’, the owner keeping a horse would be living in the blue house.

Yellow              Blue           Red           Green           White

Norweigen      Horse        Milk          Coffee

Dunhill                                  Brit

> Okay, so my next point used was: ‘The man who smokes Blend has a neighbour who drinks water’. With that information, we can eliminate the white house option because the person living in the White house would only have ONE neighbour and that neighbour is already drinking coffee. That leaves us with Yellow and Blue.

> So how do we tell whether it’s Yellow or Blue? You might have your own deductions, but for me, I simply used the fact that there’s already someone smoking another brand in the Yellow house, which leaves us with the Blue house and the Yellow House homeowner drinking the water. Hence, we have this diagram:

Yellow              Blue           Red           Green           White

Norweigen      Horse       Milk          Coffee

Dunhill             Blend        Brit

Water

> My next clue: ‘The man who smokes bluemaster drinks beer’. I immediately threw those two into the ‘White’ House since as far as I know, the ‘White’ House category doesn’t contain any beverages or cigar brand.

Yellow              Blue           Red           Green           White

Norweigen      Horse       Milk          Coffee            Beer

Dunhill             Blend             Brit                          Bluemaster

Water

> That leaves us with only one house where the tea goes to. The ‘Blue House’ and since the clue says ‘The Dane drinks tea’, that’s where they belong.

Yellow              Blue            Red           Green           White

Norweigen      Horse         Milk         Coffee            Beer

Dunhill             Blend          Brit                                   Bluemaster

Water                Tea

Cat                     Dane

> Almost there. Two complete three to go. ‘The person who smokes Pall Mall rears birds’ and ‘The German smokes prince’. The German belongs in the Green house because the Red House already has a Brit living in it, and the White House already has a brand of cigar being smoked.

Yellow              Blue           Red           Green           White

Norweigen      Horse       Milk          Coffee           Beer

Dunhill             Blend        Brit           German       Bluemaster

Water                Tea                               Prince

Cat                     Dane

> ‘The person who smokes Pall Mall rears birds’. That leaves us with the Brit in the Red House because there’s already a cigar brand being smoked in the White House.

Yellow              Blue           Red           Green           White

Norweigen      Horse       Milk           Coffee           Beer

Dunhill             Blend        Brit            German        Bluemaster

Water                Tea           Pall Mall   Prince

Cat                      Dane        Birds

> Let’s throw in the fact that The Swede keeps dogs as pets. Now we know that:

Yellow              Blue           Red            Green           White

Norweigen      Horse        Milk           Coffee           Beer

Dunhill             Blend         Brit            German        Bluemaster

Water                Tea             Pall Mall   Prince          Swiss

Cat                     Dane           Birds                                 Dogs

As of now, we can actually conclude that:

The German owns the fish.

The final diagram is:

Yellow               Blue            Red            Green            White

Norweigen       Horse        Milk           Coffee            Beer

Dunhill              Blend         Brit            German         Bluemaster

Water                Tea             Pall Mall    Prince           Swiss

Cat                      Dane          Birds           FISH            Dogs

I’m sure we all had our own ways to solve this riddle. Do feel free to share ’em ^^

Ciao everybody!

For the riddle: Click here

The Avengers Movie @ IMAX in 3D

I’ve only got one word. Yes. Just ONE BLOODY WORD to describe the experience of watching the Avengers Movie @ IMAX in 3D.

And that’s…

WOW.

The level of awesomeness is SO high that no words are enough to describe it. And I’m not kidding. I’m pretty sure those of you who have actually watched it would agree with me.

Before anything, here’s the synopsis of The Avengers:

Marvel Studios presents Marvel’s Avengers Assemble — the Super Hero team-up of a lifetime, featuring iconic Marvel Super Heroes Iron Man, The Incredible Hulk, Thor, Captain America, Hawkeye and Black Widow. When an unexpected enemy emerges threatening global safety and security, Nick Fury; Director of the international peacekeeping agency known as S.H.I.E.L.D., finds himself in need of a team to pull the world back from the brink of disaster. Spanning the globe, a daring recruitment effort begins…

Starring Robert Downey Jr., Chris Evans, Mark Ruffalo, Chris Hemsworth, Scarlett Johansson, Jeremy Renner and Tom Hiddleston, with Stellan Skarsgård and Samuel L. Jackson, and written and directed by Joss Whedon, Marvel’s Avengers Assemble is based on the ever-popular Marvel comic book series “The Avengers,” first published in 1963 and a comics institution ever since.

Prepare yourself for an exciting event movie, packed with action and spectacular special effects, when Marvel’s Avengers Assemble hits cinemas on April 26 2012.

The movie was definitely not a disappointment at all. Everyone had their fair share of screen time:

  

Tony Stark aka Ironman (Robert Downey Jr.) with his snarkiness

Steve Rogers aka Captain America(Chris Evans) and his die-heart soldier’s attitude

Bruce Banner aka The Hulk along with his brute strength and intelligence

Thor (Chris Hemsworth) and his trusty hammer

Clint Barton aka Hawkeye (Jeremy Renner) with Agent Natalia Romanova aka Black Widow (Scarlett Johansson)  equipped with an archery set and pistols respectively, and of course their skills in assassination.

And how can we forget ‘the man himself’ who brought together the entire team –

 Nick Fury (Samuel L. Jackson)

and our badass villian, Asgardian Loki (Tom HIddleston).

Each characters have their own personality/quirks, which initially made them a ‘ticking time bomb’ as quoted by Bruce Banner. Stark and Bruce became quick buddies because of their wit and intellect (nobody else understood what they were saying when they spoke about astro-physics). Steve Rogers and Stark hated each other’s guts in the beginning and oh yeah, because of how Thor took Loki away, Stark had a battle with Thor. (Stark headbutt Thor, a demigod, and nearly had his own armor dented when Thor returned one of his own)

Of course, they did eventually learn to work as a team…through some external intervention. Yes. The interventions usually includes being ass-whipped by the enemy, including Hawkeye who…well…had a spell cast on him by Loki and ended up being mind-controlled.

Initially simply portrayed as an action-filled show, I was very surprised to find a hell lot of comedic scenes in there as well. None of which came across as lame to me. The humor is subtle yet it tickled my funny bone enough to give me a tummyache laughing.

Here are some favourite scenes of mine from the movie: (SPOILERS AHEAD!)

1. Loki gets whacked by Hulk after declaring himself a god, with Hulk walking away saying ‘Puny God’ (chibi comic: https://fbcdn-sphotos-a.akamaihd.net/hphotos-ak-snc6/150144_309750869101909_259499150793748_757050_1386423082_n.jpg)

2. Thor and Ironman (Stark) have a headbutting session during their fight scenes, with Ironman getting a dent in his suit.

3. After Nick Fury uses the ‘flying monkey’ reference with regards to Loki’s mind control ability, everyone turns to Captain America (Steve Rogers), as if wondering if he caught the reference, which he did.

4. How Black Widow acted (either that or made a supremely quick recovery) during her interrogation of Loki, getting the necessary information for the team.

5. Thor getting slammed into by Tony just after he telling Loki to listen up, to which of course the Asgardian simply sat and smiled in reply, ‘I’m listening’ to thin air.

6. The fight scenes between the aliens and the Avengers. All of it.

7. Loki announcing to Tony that he has an Army while Tony simply replied ‘We have a Hulk’ in a nonchalant manner.

8. Hawkeye twisting and turning around mid-jump off a building and shoot. *fangirl mode activated*

9. Loki’s costume morph from a normal tuxedo suit into his god costume.

10. Thor receiving a random punch from Hulk and he flies off-screen.

11. ALL THE AVENGERS WORKING TOGETHER AS A TEAM DESPITE THEIR INITIAL DIFFERENCES TO AVENGE EARTH!!!!!

And there’re some subtle references to other movies as well…(Twilight and Starwars) go fig XD

So yeah, that’s about it.

Really, go watch it. You will NOT regret it I tell you.

ENJOY EVERYBODY!

P.S. Go onto Youtube and have fun watching the clips if you haven’t ^^

Singapore – Legalize Oral/Anal sex…Bans Gay sex…

MPs in Singapore have legalised oral and anal sex for adult heterosexuals but kept the ban on gay sex, saying that the bill was what citizens in the conservative island state wanted.

The reforms, which were passed on Tuesday, represent the most extensive revision of the conservative city state’s penal code in more than two decades.

The changes mean oral and anal sex between consenting heterosexual adults is no longer an offense but section 377A, which deals with oral and anal sex between consenting men, remains in force…

full article: http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2007/oct/24/gayrights.uk?fb_action_ids=10150673991521383&fb_action_types=news.reads&fb_source=other_multiline

Personally, I’m pretty open about GLBTs but I’m not an extremist. I won’t go on strike to allow gay sex nor will I go against those who do not allow it.

Correct me if I’m wrong but I’m pretty sure that quite a number of you out there (especially the younger generation) would be pretty pissed/annoyed/upset at this.

‘WHY IS ORAL AND ANAL SEX ALLOWED BETWEEN HETEROSEXUALS BUT NOT HOMOSEXUALS?!’

I’m not saying I agree with his actions. In fact just a few months ago I’d have throw a hissy fit and started ranting as well. However, my partner calmed me down and had a little chat with me to help me understand things better.

I’m a female but I thrive on hard facts and logic. Science. Statistics. The likes.

Conservative Society Roots

Being a conservative society is one thing. After all, we ARE Asians by blood and not Caucasians. Yes, our country is rather modernized and westernized due to Globalisation (or should it be called Americanisation?) BUT our forefathers came from China not America. So yeah, Gay sex is something that isn’t exactly something which they would be too quick to allow.

Ageing Population

Yeah. Ageing Population. I was pretty surprised at first cause I didn’t see the link. After explaining and helping me link up the facts, I finally saw what he meant. I guess you could say this was the point where I started to see things a little differently. Let’s face the facts. We ARE an ageing population. Our birth rate is declining. Imagine how things will be like when we get older – who’s going to take care of us?

Adoption is one thing but I wouldn’t say it’s a permanent solution. Those who read will know that only a few species of animals can mate within the same sex and still produce babies. We humans are definitely not one of them.
When we grow old, we’d need the younger generation to care for us. No one’s immortal and no human can live for centuries to come.

GLBTS are humans too

GLBTs are humans like us. They’re neither saints nor angels. There ARE extremists amongst them too, believe it or not. So yeah, there is a possibility that homosexuals, like heterosexuals, can be a**holes as well. Sorry for the crude language but it’s true.

Of course at the end of the day, it doesn’t mean that though I understand where the policy is coming from…it means i agree with it. So yeah, talk about a dilemma.

Cheers everyone ~

Home-made sore throat remedies

It’s pretty common to have a bout of sore throats and coughs after the festive season from eating too much goodies. I got a bad throat myself…except I didn’t exactly eat any goodies at all. (Oh, the irony!)

BUT! There’s a silver lining to every grey cloud! I got to find out some interesting methods of curing my throat:

  1. Grab a cold can of coke and sprinkle some salt. Apparently, there’s some chemical in coke  that helps spread the salt around and we all know that salt helps kill bacteria.
  2. Add honey to water and some lemon juice. This concortion helps calm and soothe my throat. It works wonders. If I don’t have time to make it, I’ll buy some from the nearest Traditional Chinese Medicine store…only for SGD$1
  3. Drink lots of ‘cooling’ liquid. Note – I said cooling and not cold. If you’re having a cough/sore throat, it probably means your body is dead heaty and thus you’ll have to ‘cool’ down your body. That means no milo/horlicks/that hot cup of coco you always take before you sleep. Try lemonade tea or watermelon juice. Oh and it’s an excellent excuse to drink soft drinks too. (yay for kids and soft-drink lovers out there!)
  4. Fight poison with poison. I don’t know if this works but some of my friends say it does. Never exactly had the guts to try it. So yeah, fight poison with poison. Since your body is already heated up, grab more heaty stuff. Spam chocolates, coco, mango, durian etc. Your body is bound to heal sooner or later, right?
  5. Eat strepsils or suck on lozenges. Both have medicinal value so it SHOULD work in keeping your throat calm and at ease.
  6. NO CHICKEN! NO FRIED STUFF! Chicken causes inflammation in the throat which would just further irritate it and cause you to cough more. Fried stuff obviously we all know why. It’ll just rocket your body heat up sky high. (unless you’re going for the Fight Poison with poison method)

If all else fails, PLEASE SEE A DOCTOR!

Thank you. Now back to work. BYEEEEEEEEE

Silent Sound Technology

You are in a movie theater or noicy restaurent or a bus etc where there is lot of noice around is big issue while talking on a mobile phone.

But in the future this problem is eliminated with ”silent sounds”, a new technology unveiled at the CeBIT fair on Tuesday that transforms lip movements into a computer-generated voice for the listener at the other end of the phone.

Read More

Black Holes

I was snooping around the house to look for some interesting books to read. Well, I got my wish. Found  a book near the bag of my brother’s which was titled “Stephen Hawking’s Universe”. I thought: Hey! Why not? It’s been awhile since I last read about Physics anyway…” so I took it, flipped to the content page, nodded and went back to my room.

I decided to start off with Black Holes (thus the post). Black holes are truly fascinating don’t you think? One can’t see them but we are all 99.999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999% certain they exist! That’s truly intriguing. It totally throws away the literal meaning of ‘Seeing is Believing’. (just a warning, this post might be a bit on the dry side for those who do not understand or like Physics/Astrology)

So what are Black Holes? Okay simply put they are rips in the fabric of space and time so dense and distorted by unimaginable gravitational forces that for years physicists believed nothing could escape from one, including light. Hence, by definition, they are deemed as invisible. Well which is quite true, one does need light in order to see things. Nobody can ever see one, nor will ever see one, not even if he or she uses the most powerful telescope in the entire universe. (Try switching off the lights, boarding up your windows and taping up the gap between the door and the floor. I think it’s a good enough simulation)

As Stephen Hawking said, “Within black holes, space and time we we normally perceive them come to an end.” Exactly how or what the difference is I have no idea and I sure do not want to try. Chances are if I enter a black hole, I don’t think I’d be able to tell anyone about it =D The gravitational force in a black hole is so strong that if let us say I would throw a sphere towards the black hole (assuming i can see it) you would see the sphere being stretched into an oval-like shape when it reaches the edge. After that, poof! It disappears ^^ That is how strong the gravitational force of a black hole is. It basically sucks up everything.

In my JC days, I had one amusing lecturer who used to go: “Gravity sucks” yeah well it’s true. It sucks things in literally and figuratively because he knows some of us dread that topic. Talk about your typical intended pun XD Well, your dear friend black hole sucks in anything and everything (something along the lines of being like a vacuum). There is no way of escaping a black hole (Don’t some of us wish that we could throw our homework in? =D Jkjk)

Stephen Hawkings and other theorists are convinced that the long-sought unifying concept in Physics (which explains the central interaction of the universe), lies at the periphery of black holes or similar peculiar constructions arising at one point of another in the evolution of cosmos.” ~ John Boslough, author of Stephen Hawking’s Universe

So how are black holes formed in the first place? Well, they are actually result from the death of stars (think astronomy not entertainment) Physicists say that a black hole is “described as the final stage in the death of a star before the point of singularity is reached.” This is how a break with our usual perception of space-time is created. That point of singularity is masked. (Gravitational Singularity: a point in spacetime in which gravitational forces cause matter to have an infinite density and zero volume ~wiki)

Let us look at the sun. There are two forces contending against each other. It was therorized that gravity will eventually gain the upper-hand as the sun’s nuclear fuel is spent and will then begin to collapse. When sufficient condensation has occurred, the sun becomes a ‘white dwarf’ – basically a ball of atomic nuclei + loose electrons. For the sun, this white dwarf would only be about 4x as large as the earth (minute in cosmic terms)

The mass, however, would remain as it ias and hence the gravitational pull on the surface atomic particles would increase drastically in strength. (think 380 mps to 2.1K mps) The collapse can continue but in order to reach the point whereby it literally annihilates itself, the star has to be really humongous. The sun, in which case, has only an initial mass of average value. It is theorized by Physicists that the sun will no longer continue to collapse once it turns into a white dwarf. This is because a law of physics called exclusion principle intervenes

The law of exclusion principle states that two electrons cannot occupy the same energy space, meaning there is a limit to how tightly matter can be packed together. By ordinary standards the limit is high and at the white dwarf stage, a thimbleful of the sun would weigh tons. Chances of an electron meeting another electron in the same energy space would jump.

If, however, the star has an original mass which is much greater (app. >1.4x tt of the sun) gravitation overpowers the law of exclusion principle. It thus passes through the ‘white dwarf’ stage and continues down the path of gravitational collapse: being drawn down further and breaking atomic nuclei apart, even destroying atoms. It is now what one would call a ‘neutron star’

This ‘neutron star’ is a (heavy) mass of neutrons and is no more than a few miles across. At the surface, escape velocity would be 120k mps (compared to the earth which is only about 7mps without air resistance). We should wish any star which has a mass of about 3.6x or more that of the sun because it will continue contracting at the neutron star stage. Gravity literally draws the star down into itself and that it becomes ‘a victim of its own weight’. It then reaches a point so far in deep that escape velocity becomes 186,282 mps aka the speed of light o.o At that instant if you watch the star, it is nothing more than a dim glow which would flicker out pretty soon.

Light is finally claimed by gravity. The star is now a black hole and is utterly invisible to the naked eye and even the most powerful telescope that one can possibly find. Of course, it will remain so for an extremely long time (i’m thinking aeons)

So if it is invisible? How do Physicists know and why do they agree in general that Black holes do exist? Both astrophysicists and even theoretical physicists would like to take a look. Hawkings himself, however, has become convinced, along with some other physicists that one has actually been found. The constellation of Cygnus.

There are stars which travel in pairs. (binaries) These stars orbit around a common center of gravity. It is reasoned by Astronomers that if one of the stars die and turns into a black hole, that now-invisible-black-star would still have a gravitational hold on its..um…well…lifemate? partner? mate? Oh well. Moving on, Hawking is certain that there is such a thing. Astronomers actually discovered it. The constellation of Cygnus is 6k light-years from Earth. The one which is visible is blue and it looks as if someone invisible is pulling it from one side, hence the shape of an egg.

cygnus
Left: Cygnus Constellation; Right: Cygnus X-1

Discovered in 1973, Cygnus X-1, the apparent black hole in the binary system, threw everyone into a state of excitement. Think about a kid who has just received his first game console and multiply that excitement level by a hundred. It probably barely reaches the same level XD

Just a little bite of history, there was a mini bet going on between Hawking and Kip Thorne (a friend of Hawking who was a respected theorist at the California Institute of Technology) about the ancestry of the mysterious object in Cygnus X-1. The interesting thing was that Hawking actually bet against it. Of course, Hawking himself was fairly confident and certain that it is a black hole.

“If it isn’t a black hole, it really has to be something exotic.”~ Stephen Hawkings

More than one might have been discovered by Astronomers. Another black hole announced by a team of Canadians and Americans in 1983 was discovered outside our own galaxy. This little baby apparently emits powerful X-rays and that was how it was found. In the Large Magellanic Cloud, a satellite galaxy of the Milky Way visible only in the Southern Hemisphere.

This black hole’s distance from earth is estimated to be 180k light-years, has the weight of about 10 suns with its distance from its binary mate a mere 11 mil miles. These were estimated whilst using a 158-inch telescope at the Inter-American Observatory at Cerro Tololo, Chile.

In the 1970s, Black holes started to become a cultural phenomenon. They were a common topic on talk shows and the subject of gags and jokes (I personally do not think it will be funny if you actually get dumped into one).

With the existence of a black hole, it is deemed to be a strange resident of the universe, perpetually straining the laws of physics. And what is stopping it from further collapsing onto itself? To the point of singularity, an infinite density, and perhaps causing another phenomenon similar to the Big Bang? If a star can collapse onto itself, why not the whole universe?

I thus end my very very very long post on Black Holes. Hope you enjoyed it =) Please feel free to comment on any mistakes that i made.

P.S. This whole post is inspired from and credited to: Stephen Hawking’s Universe by John Boslough.